Saturday, December 23, 2017

Unlocking the Meaning of Isaiah 53: Who is the Suffering Servant? by Jonathan McLatchie

The following is a link to McLatchie's excellent article that succinctly gathers together the Old Testament evidence that the angel of God's presence, the angel of the LORD (malak YHVH), the arm of the LORD, the messenger/angel of the Covenant, the angel in whom God's name resides (etc.) are all one person, namely the pre-incarnate Messiah/Christ.

I myself have written or linked to and/or reproduced other people's work that demonstrate the same thing on this Blog. But this article by McLatchie is an excellent summation of that data. I highly recommend it.

Mark My Words by Anthony Rogers

I highly recommend Anthony Rogers' article on the Gospel of Mark titled "Mark My Words" in the Puritan Reformed Journal, January 2015, Volume 7, Number 1 [HERE]. In the article he argues for Christ's deity from the Gospel of Mark.

See also my blogpost Markan Christology

Tuesday, November 28, 2017

Is the Old Testament Trinitarian? A Conversation with Anthony Rogers

 Is the Old Testament Trinitarian? A Conversation with Anthony Rogers

At 28:10 to 36:43, Rogers points out that while Christian scholarship from the time of B.B. Warfield has generally moved away (completely or more and more) from the position that the Trinity was revealed in the OT; many modern Jewish scholars have been going in the opposite direction. Suggesting something like the Trinity (or at least a Binity) was believed by some (sometimes even a majority of) Jews both before, during and after the time of Christ. Rogers then goes on to quote some of these contemporary Jewish scholars to that effect.

Anthony Rogers' articles at the Answering Islam website:

 Anthony Rogers vs. Ijaz Ahmad: Trinity in the Old Testament?

See also Rogers' article on the Gospel of Mark titled "Mark My Words" in the Puritan Reformed Journal, January 2015, Volume 7, Number 1 [HERE]. In the article he argues for Christ's deity from the Gospel of Mark.

Is the Trinity consistent with the Old Testament? Debate between Jonathan McLatchie vs. Yusuf Ismail

Saturday, September 2, 2017

Friday, August 18, 2017

How the 10 Commandments Supports the Doctrine of the Trinity

This is an OUTLINE and NOTES for myself regarding a future blogpost. So, my thoughts below aren't fully explained or developed. Only enough is written to remind me of the points I might want to make in the future blogpost. Punctuation and spelling are not even fixed because i typed it up fast to get my thoughts down as quickly as possible. I was brainstorming as well.

The following are Suggestive not "proofs". Dealing with only first 4 of the 10 commandments.
two tables of the law. 1st table of 4 commandments are toward God. there are many contradictory Jewish traditions on the Decalogue. One tradition has 5 commmandments on each tablet. Another tradition is that all ten commandments were on each tablet (duplicates) because they could be "...compared to diplomatic treaties of the ancient Near East, in which a copy was made for each party." [wiki]

"A" will deal with Christ
"B" will deal with the Holy Spirit

1st commandment: quote in full either exo 20 or deut 5 version, or both:

 this commandmentt has many parts. One part about how YHVH took the Israelites out of Egypt. Another part about how YHVH took them out of the house of SLAVERY. Another part about having no other gods "before" YHVH. Some interpret "before" to mean "in the presence of [altogether]" or "prior to" in commitment/importance. in light of michael heisler's Divine Council hypothesis i think there's some merit in the 2nd interpretation, though that doesn't necessarily contradict/exclude the first interpretation. Both Christ and the Spirit led the israelites out of Egypt and through the wilderness according to the ot&nt.

A.) Christ: titus 2:13ff and James White's comments about redemption in his book The Forgotten Trinity. White shows how Jesus redeems the church like YHVH did Israel. Thus suggesting Jesus is YHVH..  1 Cor. 10:4 & 9 demonstrates preexistence of christ and his involvement in the exodus and wilderness experience [link to heiser's videos on the Trinity and the Angel of YHVH's involvement during exodus and wilderness.]. Jude 1:5 and textual variant that has "Jesus". cite the NET footnote.

YHVH took the israelites out of the house of SLAVERY. Jesus said whom the Son sets free is free indeed (John 8:36).

Unitarianism violates the 1st commandment regarding worship (of Jesus). Even Dale Tuggy in a sense concedes this fact but says it's not a problem. Cite your interactions with Tuggy as well as his articles where he admits and tries to geet around this. While some Unitarians reject worshipping Jesus, others like Tuggy accept it. While others (e.g. Jehovah's Witnesses) have switched positions back and forth regarding the propriety of worshipping Jesus.

cf. my blogpost: Worshipping a Merely Human Jesus Is Wrong No Matter How Exalted

B.) Holy Spirit: Isa. 63:10 might refer to the wilderness rebellion. cf. Ps. 95.
Jesus was lead by the Spirit to be tested. A re-enactment of Israel being lead into the wilderness to be tested. Christ succeed/passed test unlike the israelites. So, the Holy Spirit involved/lead Israel in the OT.
The pillar of cloud and fire by night was the Holy Spirit. cf. NT passage of being baptized by the Holy Spirit and with fire. The fire is negative and refers to judgment. The same Holy Spirit who is the element believers are baptized into in this Age and which sanctifies is the same element that will burn the wicked in judgment the next Age. The same sun that melts wax hardens clay. cite "our God is a consuming fire" heb 12:29. The shekinah presence of God is associated with clouds (cf. when the cloud descended on the wilderness tent and later with solomon's temple) in the OT and NT as well as the Holy Spirit is.
Blaspheming the Holy Spirit alludes to the form and proper respect and worship one ought to have towards the Holy Spirit. Fellowship with the Holy Spirit. Compare and link to your blogposts on Praying to and Worshipping, fellowshipping and not blaspheming the Holy Spirit. Acts 13:2ff
 Praying to and Worshipping the Holy Spirit

YHVH took the israelites out of the house of SLAVERY. The Holy Spirit is associated with freedom and liberty.

"where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is freedom/liberty"- 2 cor. 3:17
By the Holy Spirit Christ (and by extension believers) are able to "proclaim liberty to the captives" (isa. 61:1; luke 4:18).
" For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus made me free from the law of sin and of death."- Rom. 8:2

2nd commandmmment: quote in full

In a sense God the Father was willing to "violate" (so to speak) this commandment regarding Christ and the Holy Spirit. probably because they alone fully represent God and so don't violate the spirit of the commandment. Namely, giving a false impression of what the Father is like. Whereas Jesus said those who have seen Him have "seen" (so to speak) the Father. Moreover the Spirit of truth reveals/discloses the truth of/about God. Those filled with the Holy Spirit become the temples of God (suggesting the Holy Spirit is God).

A.) Jesus as the image of God who reveals God (the Father) in a unique way (Col 1:15, 19 and 2:9; Heb. 1:3 hypostasis). Also incarnation. Christ the visible image of the invisible God. John 14:9. There was a form of Jehovah in Gen., in Judges, in Isa 6.

Another part of the commandment is about not serving or bowing down to other gods.
cites passages where Christ is either worshipped, bowed down (rev. 1:17; 5:8, 14) to or loved in a way that should be reserved only for God (cf. Isa. 45:23; Rom. 11:4; Rev. 19:10; 22:8-9).  cite your blogpost on loving/devotion to Jesus as proof of His divinity. cite phil. 2 that alludes to isa 45:23 and bowing .

Jesus is served in Dan. 7:13-14. There's a textual variant in the LXX that uses a form of latreuo which is a form of service reserved ONLY for divine worship. There are other NT passages about serving Christ (e.g. Col. 3:24; Rom. 14:4, 18; 16:18) or being Christ's slave/bondservant (Rom. 1:1; Gal. 1:10; Col. 4:12; Titus 1:1; James 1:1; Jude 1:1). Though, the word latreuo and its various forms aren't used.
Another part of this commandment is about how God is jealous. Yet in 1 Cor. 10:14-22 we are told not to "provoke the Lord to jealousy". The "Lord" in the passage is almost certainly the Lord JESUS.
For more on this see my blogpost: The "Cup and Table of the Lord" As Evidence for Christ's Full Deity

Another part of this command states, "...but showing steadfast love to thousands of those who love me and keep my commandments."

The New Testament refers to the "commandments of the Lord [Jesus]" (John 14:15, 21; 15:10; 2 Pet. 3:2; 1 Cor. 14:37). Suggesting Christ's full divinity in that he can give commandments that seem to be on par with God the Father's.
B.)In one sense the Holy Spirit, like the Father, is invisible (cf. John 3 the wind and Spirit blows but only the effects are visibly seen). Yet in another sense the Holy Spirit is revealed or likened symbolically and emblematically to/as a dove, or pillar of cloud by day and fire by night, waters of baptism (Titus 3:5), annointing oil, seal etc.. Figuratively the Holy Spirit is the Spirit of truth (Greek word literally has the meaning of something like unhidden "unclosedness", "unconcealedness", "disclosure" ) and light and therefore enlightenment and sight (cf. ps. 36:9; 27:1).

Another part of the commandment is about not serving or bowing down to other gods. Rom. 7:6 says Christians are to serve in the newness of the spirit/Spirit. See my comments below about work and labor for the Lord in the 4th commandment. There I show how the New Testament teaches we are to work/labor (and so by extension serve) the Holy Spirit. Also, how that very service/work/labor is done and performed by the empowering of the Holy Spirit Himself.

Another part of this commandment is about how God is jealous. While the proper translation and interpretation of James 4:5 is uncertain, some translations imply that the Holy Spirit can be jealous for us in a holy way. See for example the NKJV and ASV translation:

Or do you think that the Scripture says in vain, "The Spirit who dwells in us yearns jealously"?- James 4:5 NKJV
Or think ye that the scripture speaketh in vain? Doth the spirit which he made to dwell in us long unto envying?- James 4:5 ASV
Or do you think the scripture means nothing when it says, "The spirit that God caused to live within us has an envious yearning"?- James 4:5 NET
Possibly the scripture referred to is Gen. 6:3 where God refers to His Spirit.

Another part of this command states, "...but showing steadfast love to thousands of those who love me and keep MY commandments." Regarding the statement in Rom. 7:14 which says that law of God is "spiritual", John Gill states, "the law may be said to be "spiritual", because it comes from the Spirit of God; and reaches to the spirit of man; it requires truth in the inward parts; spiritual service and obedience..." Acts 1:2 refers to how Christ, "had given commands through the Holy Spirit". These commands were given through the Spirit and must be obeyed ("kept") by the Spirit. All this is consistent with the full divinity of the Holy Spirit. Especially since disobedience can grieve/vex the Holy Spirit (Eph. 4:30, Isa. 63:10). As if God's laws were also the Holy Spirit's laws, such that it results in the Spirit striving with sinful men (Gen. 6:3).

3rd commandment: quote in fulll
A.) The name of Jehovah/Yehovah/YHVH is linked to Jesus. See your blog on Identifying Jesus with Jehovah. This linking of the name YHVH/Yehovah/Jehovah with Jesus and the Holy Spirit would be blasphemous if Christ and the Spirit are not fully divine/God.
Paul talks about the sin of "cursing" Christ or affirming Him Lord 1 Cor. 12/Rom. 10:9-10, 13.
cite phil. 2 which alludes to isa 45:23 and the name of YHVH as applied to Jesus. If Jesus isn't fully God, then YHVH's name is taken in vain.

B.) Link to your Holy Spirit blogpost. 2 Cor. 3:17-18 "the Lord (kurios) is the Spirit.....the Lord who is the Spirit." Twice this passage says the Lord is the Spirit. Kurios was the word used in the LXX to translate the Hebrew YHVH. Suggesting a predication that the Holy Spirit is Jehovah/Yehovah.

Matt. 28:19 the triadic formulation suggests the name YHVH applies and belongs to all three persons. It doesnt' says "nameS" (plural), but "name" singular. The definite article used for all three persons (THE, Father, THE Son, and THE Holy Spirit).

In Semitic cultures one's name is a description of the essence and character of the person. To bless/curse a person was to bless/curse his name and vice versa (i.e. to bless/curse a name was to bless/curse the person). So Blaspheming the Holy Spirit implies a reference for the Holy Spirit and His name. Suggesting a violation of the 3rd commandment.

Ananias and Sapphira are said to have lied to God when they lied to the Holy Spirit (Acts 5:3-4) when they publicly claimed in Christ's congregation that they did X when they hadn't. Such public declaration in church is equivalent to swearing in God's name. By lying to the Holy Spirit, they in effect, took God's name in vain (i.e. used and abused the Name).

4th commandment:quote in full

 Two parts in this commandment. First is to WORK 6 days, and Secondly to REST 1 day.  Ps. 127:1.
Rom. 16:12 "labor in the Lord [Jesus]" . Christians both labored/worked in the Lord Jesus, and rested in Christ as well (cf. 1 Cor. 15:58; 2 Cor. 11:23; 1 cor. 9:1). There are Synoptic parables where laborers work for a boss who is figuratively Christ. Cf. John 4:38.
Isa. 11    Therefore I swore in my wrath, "They shall not enter my rest."

A.) cf. Heb. on rest. Jesus' statement come unto me and I will give you rest. also 2 thess 1:7 grant "rest" or "relief".

This commandment states, "For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested on the seventh day." There are many passages that state how Christ and the Holy Spirit were involved in creation and creating. Regarding the Holy Spirit's role in creating/creation there are passages as these Gen. 1:2; Job 33:4; Ps. 33:6; 104:30. Regarding Christ's role in creation there are passages as these John 1:1-3; Heb. 1:2; 1 Cor. 8:6; Col. 1:16 et cetera.

Laboring in/for the Holy Spirit (cf. Acts 13:2 where the Holy Spirit calls/sends them for "work".
Isa. 63:14  As a beast goeth down into the valley, the Spirit of the LORD caused him to REST so didst thou lead thy people, to make thyself a glorious name.
"....righteousnsess, PEACE and joy in the Holy Spirit" and how shalom and eiréné includes a cessation of hostilities and rest.
  Working by the power of the Holy Spirit who empowers. "I can do all things through HIM who strengthens me". The Him might refer to Christ or the Holy Spirit. Living/walking in the Spirit cf. galatians and ephesians. Rom. 8 "helps us in our weaknesses". Spirit is our helper and "comforter" (Sproul says from the Latin meaning something like to come alongside with power [cf. the word forte meaning "strength]").

Possibly 1 Pet. 4:14; Isa. 11:2; Num. 11:25-26; 2 Cor. 12:9 and "resting". Though, this linguistic connection could be a stretch.

quote, link/recommend your blogpost:

All Three Persons of the Trinity Mentioned In Scripture (Directly or Indirectly)

The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ and the love of God and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with you all.- 2 Cor. 13:14

4 Now there are varieties of gifts, but the same Spirit; 5 and there are varieties of service, but the same Lord; 6 and there are varieties of activities, but it is the same God who empowers them all in everyone.- 1 Cor. 12:4-6

Theologians have pointed out that the use of the word "SAME" in "...same Spirit...same Lord...same God..." suggests an intertwining equality of being, dignity, glory and activity between the three and therefore suggestive of the doctrine of the Trinity. The three are simultaneously distinguished yet united and equal.

4 There is one body and one Spirit---just as you were called to the one hope that belongs to your call--- 5 one Lord, one faith, one baptism, 6 one God and Father of all, who is over all and through all and in all.- Eph. 4:4-6
In Eph. 4:6b some theologians find a possible hint referring to the Trinity. It would make sense since Paul just referred to "one Spirit," "one Lord" and "one God." For example, Adam Clarke wrote in his commentary:
Who is above all - Ὁ επι παντων· Who is over all; as the King of kings, and Lord of lords.
And through all - Pervading every thing; being present with every thing; providing for all creatures; and by his energy supporting all things.
And in you all - By the energy of his Spirit, enlightening, quickening, purifying, and comforting; in a word, making your hearts the temples of the Holy Ghost. Some think the mystery of the blessed Trinity is contained in this verse: God is over all, as Father; through all, by the Logos or Word; and in all, by the Holy Spirit.
Jamieson Fausset and Brown Commentary similarly states:
 above — “over all.” The “one God over all” (in His sovereignty and by His grace) is the grand source and crowning apex of unity (Eph_2:19, end).
through all by means of Christ “who filleth all things” (Eph_4:10; Eph_2:20, Eph_2:21), and is “a propitiation” for all men (1Jo_2:2).
in you all — The oldest manuscripts omit “you.” Many of the oldest versions and Fathers and old manuscripts read, “in us all.” Whether the pronoun be read or not, it must be understood (either from the “ye,” Eph_4:4, or from the “us,” Eph_4:7); for other parts of Scripture prove that the Spirit is not “in all” men, but only in believers (Rom_8:9, Rom_8:14). God is “Father” both by generation (as Creator) and regeneration (Eph_2:10; Jam_1:17, Jam_1:18; 1Jo_5:1).

Saturday, May 20, 2017

The Lord said to my Lord by Steve Hays

Here's the link to a great blogpost by Steve Hays on Ps. 110 verses 1 and 5 as it relates to Unitarian polemics. See also my comments at the blogpost's combox.

The Lord said to my Lord by Steve Hays

The url:

Links to John Gill's Chapters on the Trinity in His Work "A Body of Doctrinal Divinity"

27. Of a Plurality on the Godhead; or, A Trinity of Persons in the Unity of the Divine Essence.

28. Of the Personal Relations; or, Relative Properties Which Distinguish the Three Divine Persons in the Deity.

29. Of the Distinct Personality, and Deity of the Father.

30. Of the Distinct Personality, and Deity of the Son.

31. Of the Distinct Personality, and Deity of the Holy Spirit.

See Also John Gill's book "The Doctrine Of The Trinity Stated And Vindicated by John Gill

Saturday, April 8, 2017

"IS" of Identity, or "IS" of Prediction in the Trinity

At 30 minutes and 33 seconds of the following video, William Lane Craig distinguishes between the "is" of identity and the "is" of prediction with respect to the doctrine of the Trinity.

Thursday, March 16, 2017

"Memra" article from the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia

The following article is copied from the link here:

MEMRA (= "Ma'amar" or "Dibbur," "Logos"):

"The Word," in the sense of the creative or directive word or speech of God manifesting His power in the world of matter or mind; a term used especially in the Targum as a substitute for "the Lord" when an anthropomorphic expression is to be avoided.
—Biblical Data: 
In Scripture "the word of the Lord" commonly denotes the speech addressed to patriarch or prophet (Gen. xv. 1; Num. xii. 6, xxiii. 5; I Sam. iii. 21; Amos v. 1-8); but frequently it denotes also the creative word: "By the word of the Lord were the heavens made" (Ps. xxxiii. 6; comp. "For He spake, and it was done"; "He sendeth his word, and melteth them [the ice]"; "Fire and hail; snow, and vapors; stormy wind fulfilling his word"; Ps. xxxiii. 9, cxlvii. 18, cxlviii. 8). In this sense it is said, "For ever, O Lord, thy word is settled in heaven" (Ps. cxix. 89). "The Word," heard and announced by the prophet, often became, in the conception of the seer, an efficacious power apart from God, as was the angel or messenger of God: "The Lord sent a word into Jacob, and it hath lighted upon Israel" (Isa. ix. 7 [A. V. 8], lv. 11); "He sent his word, and healed them" (Ps. cvii. 20); and comp. "his word runneth very swiftly" (Ps. cxlvii. 15).
Personification of the Word. 
—In Apocryphal and Rabbinical Literature: While in the Book of Jubilees, xii. 22, the word of God is sent through the angel to Abraham, in other cases it becomes more and more a personified agency: "By the word of God exist His works" (Ecclus. [Sirach] xlii. 15); "The Holy One, blessed be He, created the world by the 'Ma'amar'" (Mek., Beshallaḥ, 10, with reference to Ps. xxxiii. 6). Quite frequent is the expression, especially in the liturgy, "Thou who hast made the universe with Thy word and ordained man through Thy wisdom to rule over the creatures made by Thee" (Wisdom ix. 1; comp. "Who by Thy words causest the evenings to bring darkness, who openest the gates of the sky by Thy wisdom"; . . . "who by His speech created the heavens, and by the breath of His mouth all their hosts"; through whose "words all things were created"; see Singer's "Daily Prayer-Book," pp. 96, 290, 292). So also in IV Esdras vi. 38 ("Lord, Thou spakest on the first day of Creation: 'Let there be heaven and earth,' and Thy word hath accomplished the work"). "Thy word, O Lord, healeth all things" (Wisdom xvi. 12); "Thy word preserveth them that put their trust in Thee" (l.c. xvi. 26). Especially strong is the personification of the word in Wisdom xviii. 15: "Thine Almighty Word leaped down from heaven out of Thy royal throne as a fierce man of war." The Mishnah, with reference to the ten passages in Genesis (ch. i.) beginning with "And God said," speaks of the ten "ma'amarot" (= "speeches") by which the world was created (Abot v. 1; comp. Gen. R. iv. 2: "The upper heavens are held in suspense by the creative Ma'amar"). Out of every speech ["dibbur"] which emanated from God an angel was created (Ḥag. 14a). "The Word ["dibbur"] called none but Moses" (Lev. R. i. 4, 5). "The Word ["dibbur"] went forth from the right hand of God and made a circuit around the camp of Israel" (Cant. R. i. 13).
—In the Targum: In the Targum the Memra figures constantly as the manifestation of the divinepower, or as God's messenger in place of God Himself, wherever the predicate is not in conformity with the dignity or the spirituality of the Deity.

Instead of the Scriptural "You have not believed in the Lord," Targ. Deut. i. 32 has "You have not believed in the word of the Lord"; instead of "I shall require it [vengeance] from him," Targ. Deut. xviii. 19 has "My word shall require it." "The Memra," instead of "the Lord," is "the consuming fire" (Targ. Deut. ix. 3; comp. Targ. Isa. xxx. 27). The Memra "plagued the people" (Targ. Yer. to Ex. xxxii. 35). "The Memra smote him" (II Sam. vi. 7; comp. Targ. I Kings xviii. 24; Hos. xiii. 14; et al.). Not "God," but "the Memra," is met with in Targ. Ex. xix. 17 (Targ. Yer. "the Shekinah"; comp. Targ. Ex. xxv. 22: "I will order My Memra to be there"). "I will cover thee with My Memra," instead of "My hand" (Targ. Ex. xxxiii. 22). Instead of "My soul," "My Memra shall reject you" (Targ. Lev. xxvi. 30; comp. Isa. i. 14, xlii. 1; Jer. vi. 8; Ezek. xxiii. 18). "The voice of the Memra," instead of "God," is heard (Gen. iii. 8; Deut. iv. 33, 36; v. 21; Isa. vi. 8; et al.). Where Moses says, "I stood between the Lord and you" (Deut. v. 5), the Targum has, "between the Memra of the Lord and you"; and the "sign between Me and you" becomes a "sign between My Memra and you" (Ex. xxxi. 13, 17; comp. Lev. xxvi. 46; Gen. ix. 12; xvii. 2, 7, 10; Ezek. xx. 12). Instead of God, the Memra comes to Abimelek (Gen. xx. 3), and to Balaam (Num. xxiii. 4). His Memra aids and accompanies Israel, performing wonders for them (Targ. Num. xxiii. 21; Deut. i. 30, xxxiii. 3; Targ. Isa. lxiii. 14; Jer. xxxi. 1; Hos. ix. 10 [comp. xi. 3, "the messenger-angel"]). The Memra goes before Cyrus (Isa. xlv. 12). The Lord swears by His Memra (Gen. xxi. 23, xxii. 16, xxiv. 3; Ex. xxxii. 13; Num. xiv. 30; Isa. xlv. 23; Ezek. xx. 5; et al.). It is His Memra that repents (Targ. Gen. vi. 6, viii. 21; I Sam. xv. 11, 35). Not His "hand," but His "Memra has laid the foundation of the earth" (Targ. Isa. xlviii. 13); for His Memra's or Name's sake does He act (l.c. xlviii. 11; II Kings xix. 34). Through the Memra God turns to His people (Targ. Lev. xxvi. 90; II Kings xiii. 23), becomes the shield of Abraham (Gen. xv. 1), and is with Moses (Ex. iii. 12; iv. 12, 15) and with Israel (Targ. Yer. to Num. x. 35, 36; Isa. lxiii. 14). It is the Memra, not God Himself, against whom man offends (Ex. xvi. 8; Num. xiv. 5; I Kings viii. 50; II Kings xix. 28; Isa. i. 2, 16; xlv. 3, 20; Hos. v. 7, vi. 7; Targ. Yer. to Lev. v. 21, vi. 2; Deut. v. 11); through His Memra Israel shall be justified (Targ. Isa. xlv. 25); with the Memra Israel stands in communion (Targ. Josh. xxii. 24, 27); in the Memra man puts his trust (Targ. Gen. xv. 6; Targ. Yer. to Ex. xiv. 31; Jer. xxxix. 18, xlix. 11).

Like the Shekinah (comp. Targ. Num. xxiii. 21), the Memra is accordingly the manifestation of God. "The Memra brings Israel nigh unto God and sits on His throne receiving the prayers of Israel" (Targ. Yer. to Deut. iv. 7). It shielded Noah from the flood (Targ. Yer. to Gen. vii. 16) and brought about the dispersion of the seventy nations (l.c. xi. 8); it is the guardian of Jacob (Gen. xxviii. 20-21, xxxv. 3) and of Israel (Targ. Yer. to Ex. xii. 23, 29); it works all the wonders in Egypt (l.c. xiii. 8, xiv. 25); hardens the heart of Pharaoh (l.c. xiii. 15); goes before Israel in the wilderness (Targ. Yer. to Ex. xx. 1); blesses Israel (Targ. Yer. to Num. xxiii. 8); battles for the people (Targ. Josh. iii. 7, x. 14, xxiii. 3). As in ruling over the destiny of man the Memra is the agent of God (Targ. Yer. to Num. xxvii. 16), so also is it in the creation of the earth (Isa. xlv. 12) and in the execution of justice (Targ. Yer. to Num. xxxiii. 4). So, in the future, shall the Memra be the comforter (Targ. Isa. lxvi. 13): "My Shekinah I shall put among you, My Memra shall be unto you for a redeeming deity, and you shall be unto My Name a holy people" (Targ. Yer. to Lev. xxii. 12). "My Memra shall be unto you like a good plowman who takes off the yoke from the shoulder of the oxen"; "the Memra will roar to gather the exiled" (Targ. Hos. xi. 5, 10). The Memra is "the witness" (Targ. Yer. xxix. 23); it will be to Israel like a father (l.c. xxxi. 9) and "will rejoice over them to do them good" (l.c. xxxii. 41). "In the Memra the redemption will be found" (Targ. Zech. xii. 5). "The holy Word" was the subject of the hymns of Job (Test. of Job, xii. 3, ed. Kohler).

The Logos.
It is difficult to say how far the rabbinical concept of the Memra, which is used now as a parallel to the divine Wisdom and again as a parallel to the Shekinah, had come under the influence of the Greek term "Logos," which denotes both word and reason, and, perhaps owing to Egyptian mythological notions, assumed in the philosophical system of Heraclitos, of Plato, and of the Stoa the metaphysical meaning of world-constructive and world-permeating intelligence (see Reizenstein, "Zwei Religionsgeschichtliche Fragen," 1901, pp. 83-111; comp. Aall, "Der Logos," and the Logos literature given by Schürer, "Gesch." i. 3, 542-544). The Memra as a cosmic power furnished Philo the corner-stone upon which he built his peculiar semi-Jewish philosophy. Philo's "divine thought," "the image" and "first-born son" of God, "the archpriest," "intercessor," and "paraclete" of humanity, the "arch type of man" (see Philo), paved the way for the Christian conceptions of the Incarnation ("the Word become flesh") and the Trinity. The Word which "the unoriginated Father created in His own likeness as a manifestation of His own power" appears in the Gnostic system of Marcus (Irenæus, "Adversus Hæreses," i. 14). In the ancient Church liturgy, adopted from the Synagogue, it is especially interesting to notice how often the term "Logos," in the sense of "the Word by which God made the world, or made His Law or Himself known to man," was changed into "Christ" (see "Apostolic Constitutions," vii. 25-26, 34-38, et al.). Possibly on account of the Christian dogma, rabbinic theology, outside of the Targum literature, made little use of the term "Memra." See Logos.

  • Bousset, Die Religion des Judenthums im Neutestamentlichen Zeitalter, 1903, p. 341;
  • Weber, Jüdische Theologie, 1897, pp. 180-184.

Saturday, March 11, 2017

James' High Christology by Anthony Rogers

Part 1:

Part 2:

It's part 2 that more specifically deals with Christology.

See also Rogers' article on the Gospel of Mark titled "Mark My Words" in the Puritan Reformed Journal, January 2015, Volume 7, Number 1 [HERE]. In the article he argues for Christ's deity from the Gospel of Mark.

See also The Christology of James by Robert B. Sloan

Friday, January 6, 2017

Bart Ehrman's Current Beliefs Regarding Jesus and His Divinity

click the link below:

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Bart Ehrman's Current Beliefs Regarding Jesus and His Divinity

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  See also Robert Bowman's book review:

How Jesus Became God—or How God Became Jesus? A Review of Bart Ehrman’s New Book and a Concurrent Response






The Divinity of Jesus in the Gospel of Mark by James White

The following sermons are from the The Phoenix Reformed Baptist Church where James White is an elder. At their website they have links to many of their sermons. See also their channel at SermonAudio HERE. James White has many sermons/lectures related the topic of the Trinity there. The following are just a sample dedicated to Christ's deity in Mark.

The Bookends Of Mark (8/5/2012)


The Divinity Of Jesus In Mark (8/5/2012)

The Deity of Christ in Mark: Transfiguration (8/8/2012)

Take Up Your Cross (8/12/2012)

The Examination Of Jesus Before The Sanhedrin (8/12/2012)