Thursday, August 28, 2014

Old Testament Passages Implying Plurality in God


In a previous blogpost I listed some interesting verses in the Old Testament that imply plurality in the Godhead or in God. I've found more and may find even more in the future. So, I'll post my original list and then post the new passages as additions at the bottom. That way I can continue adding at the bottom as I find more.


Here are some examples of implied plurality with respect to God in the Old Testament. At the very least they are suggestive even if they are not conclusive proof of multiplicity in God and/or the "Godhead".

Genesis 19:24 "Then the LORD rained brimstone and fire on Sodom and Gomorrah, from the LORD out of the heavens."
This passage suggests that there are (at least) two persons with the name [or who share the name of] YHWH. A YHWH on earth who had been speaking to Abraham and A YHWH in heaven who sends down fire and brimstone.

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1    Then he showed me Joshua the high priest standing before the angel of the LORD, and Satan standing at his right hand to accuse him.2 And the LORD said to Satan, "The LORD rebuke you, O Satan! The LORD who has chosen Jerusalem rebuke you! Is not this a brand plucked from the fire?"- Zech. 3:1-2

This passage, like Gen. 19:24, suggest two persons referred to as "LORD" (YHWH, AKA "Jehovah" or "Yahweh"). Notice that the Angel of Jehovah is called simply "Jehovah" at Zech. 3:2a and then this Jehovah says may Jehovah (i.e. another person also named Jehovah) rebuke you (i.e. Satan). This is one of many passages in the Old Testament where the Angel of Jehovah is simply called Jehovah or is identified as Jehovah either explicitly or implicitly. See for example the following excerpt from E.W. Hengstenberg's Christology of the Old Testament. Or listen to any one of Michael S. Heiser's lectures on the Jewish Trinity in the Old Testament.

The Angel of the LORD by E.W. Hengstenberg

The Jewish Trinity: How the Old Testament Reveals the Christian Godhead by Dr. Michael Heiser


Regarding these verses of Zech. 3:1-2 Hengstenberg in volume 3 of his Christology of the Old Testament wrote:
In the words, "the Lord said, the Lord rebuke thee," a distinction is made between the Lord and his Angel; and, at the same time, the latter is placed on an equality with the former, in respect of divine wrath and glory.- p. 323

And thus the prophet sees Joshua the High Priest on the present occasion, engaged as a priest in the service of the angel of the Lord, who is introduced in ver. 2 under the name of Jehovah, which belongs to God alone, and who attributes to himself in ver. 4 an exclusively divine work, the forgiveness of sins.- p. 319

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Isaiah 54:5: "For your Maker is your husband…" [Literally in the Hebrew : makers, husbands,] Notice that "makers" and "husbands" are plural.
Ecclesiastes 12:1: "Remember now you creator…" [Literally: "creators" plural]

Psalm 149:2: "Let Israel rejoice in their Maker." [Literally: "makers" plural]

possibly Job 35:10 too, see John Gill on that verse

Joshua 24:19: "…holy God…" [Literally: "holy Gods" plural]
John Gill says of this verse, "In the Hebrew text it is, 'for the Holy Ones [are] he': which may serve to illustrate and confirm the doctrine of the trinity of, persons in the unity of the divine Essence, or of the three divine holy Persons, holy Father, holy Son, holy Spirit, as the one God..."

An article on the Jews of Jesus website states:

While the use of the plural Elohim does not prove a Tri-unity, it certainly opens the door to a doctrine of plurality in the Godhead since it is the word that is used of the one true God as well as for the many false gods.
Plural Verbs used with Elohim
Virtually all Hebrew scholars do recognize that the word Elohim, as it stands by itself, is a plural noun. Nevertheless, they wish to deny that it allows for any plurality in the Godhead whatsoever. Their line of reasoning usually goes like this: When "Elohim" is used of the true God, it is followed by a singular verb; when it is used of false gods, it is followed by the plural verb. Rabbi Greenberg states it as follows:


"But, in fact, the verb used in the opening verse of Genesis is 'bara' which means 'he created'—singular. One need not be too profound a student of Hebrew to understand that the opening verse of Genesis clearly speaks of a singular God."
The point made, of course, is generally true because the Bible does teach that God is only one God and, therefore, the general pattern is to have the plural noun followed by the singular verb when it speaks of the one true God. However, there are places where the word is used of the true God and yet it is followed by a plural verb: 

Genesis 20:13: "And it came to pass, when God (Elohim) caused me to wander [literally: They caused me to wander] from my father's house…
 
Genesis 35:7: "…because there God (Elohim) appeared unto him…" [Literally: They appeared unto him.]
 
2 Samuel 7:23: "…God (Elohim) went…" [Literally: They went.]
 
Psalm 58:12: "Surely He is God (Elohim) who judges…[Literally: They judge.]

I believe the last passage should read Ps. 58:11 not 58:12.





Nick Norelli in his book The Defense of an Essential: A Believer’s Handbook for Defending the Trinity listed the following:

1. Plural Verbs

o Genesis 20:13
English Translation: God caused me to wander
Hebrew: ה התתְעוו ו אלתהים, א אלֹל ה היםם
Literally: They caused me to wander

o Genesis 35:7
English Translation: God appeared
Hebrew: נהגתְלֹו ו א אלֹלָיםו לָ ה א אלֹל ה היםם
Literally: They appeared

o 2Samuel 7:23
English Translation: God went
Hebrew: לָ הלֹתְכוו ו -א א אלֹל ה היםם
Literally: They went

o Psalms 58:12
English Translation: God that judges
Hebrew: א אלֹל ה היםם ששלפתְ ה טיםם
Literally: Gods that judge

2. Plural Adjectives

o Deuteronomy 5:26
English Translation: living God
Hebrew: א אלֹל ה היםם ח חים ה יםום
Literally: Living Gods8

o Joshua 24:19
English Translation: holy God
Hebrew: א אלֹל ה היםם תְ קדֹלששהיםם
Literally: Holy Gods

3. Plural Nouns

o Ecclesiastes 12:1
English Translation: thy Creator
Hebrew: בוולרתְ אֶ איםךלָ
Literally: Creators

o Isaiah 54:5
English Translation: For thy Maker is thy husband
Hebrew: בל ע עולֹחיִךתְ עולששחיִךתְ
Literally: Makers, Husbands9

o Malachi 1:6
English Translation: Master
Hebrew: ע אדֹולנהיםם
Literally: Masters10

o Daniel 7:18
English Translation: Most High
Hebrew: אֶ עולֹתְיםולנהיםן
Literally: Most High Ones

footnotes:
8 See also 1Samuel 17:26, 36 & Jeremiah 10:10, 23:36 for “living Gods”
9 See also Psalm 149:2 for “Makers”
10 Nearly every occurrence of the noun “Lord” ( ע אדֹולנהים ) in reference to God appears in the plural form.

This excerpt from Nick's book was taken from a larger excerpt that can be downloaded HERE

As Anthony Rogers says in one of his articles:
 When all is said and done, the Old Testament uses plural nouns, pronouns, verbs, adverbs and adjectives for God.
Meaning, plural nouns, plural pronouns, plural verbs, plural adverbs, and plural adjectives for God.

It's true that in the Old Testament human masters are sometimes referred to in the plural. For example, in Gen. 24 Abraham's servant called him "adonim" (literally "lords"). Joseph speaks of Potiphar his master in the plural in Gen. 39. David is called "lords" in 1 Kings 1:11. However, if Unitarianism is true, then wouldn't it have been the wisest thing for God to have taught the Israelites and inspired Scripture to refer to Him in only singular nouns, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, and adjectives? Instead, God inspired Scripture to be consistent with a plurality of persons within the one true God.





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Hosea 1:7: "Yet I will have mercy on the house of Judah, will save them by the LORD their God, and will not save them by bow, nor by sword or battle, by horses or horsemen."
Here YHWH speaks about another person as YHWH.

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Zechariah 2:8-9: "For thus says the LORD of Hosts: "He sent Me after glory, to the nations which plunder you; for he that touches you touches the apple of His eye. For surely I will shake My hand against them, and they shall become spoil for their servants. Then you will know that the LORD of hosts has sent Me."
This passage could be referring to the prophet (Zechariah) himself, or (possibly) it has YHWH speaking and saying that another person who is YHWH has sent Him (i.e. YHWH).

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Isaiah 48:16
" Come near to Me, hear this: I have not spoken in secret from the beginning; From the time that it was, I was there. And now the Lord GOD [YHWH] and His Spirit Have sent Me."
Here's another passage where YHWH is speaking and says that another person whose name is also YHWH and YHWH's Spirit (evidently the Holy Spirit) has sent Him (i.e. YHWH who was speaking).

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There are places where God speaking speaks of "Us" as if there's a plurality in the Godhead.

Gen. 1:26 "Then God said, "Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness..."

Gen. 11:7 "Come, let Us go down and there confuse their language, so that they may not understand one another's speech."

Gen. 3:22 "22 Then the LORD God said, "Behold, the man has become like one of Us..."

Isa. 6:8 "Also I heard the voice of the Lord, saying: " Whom shall I send, And who will go for Us?" Then I said, "Here am I! Send me."
Admittedly, the "us" might refer to God and His angels in heavenly counsel. Nevertheless, it need not include the angels, and it would be in keeping with the rest of the Old and New Testaments that imply a plurality in God.

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Also, I've recently heard the following argument that is based on Hebrew from an episode of the John Ankerberg show I watched on youtube.com I've posted the link that directly goes to the part in the video where the argument is made.

[The original link is dead. Here's another link that might eventually end up being dead too]


http://youtu.be/OiRY3yFR8mg?t=1m14s

In essence it said that there are three ways to say "god" in Hebrew. "EL" (singular), "ELOHIAM" (dual) and "ELOHIM" (three or more). "ELOHIAM" (dual) is never used of God in the Old Testment while "ELOHIM" which means 3 or more is used of God over 2000 times. Ankerberg cites Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar p. 244 which state "[The dual] in Hebrew, however, it is almost exclusively used to denote those objects which naturally occur in pairs." If this argument is true, then that would support (though not prove) the doctrine of the Trinity. However, I'm not sure this argument is true. I need to confirm it since I believe this is the same Gesenius who some claim foisted the anachronistic hoax that pluralis majestiticus (royal plurality of majesty) was a concept known and used by ancient Semitic cultures. This is according to Robert Morey in his book Trinity: Evidence and Issues. Though Morey's scholarship is itself suspect at times (cf. his so-called "scholarship" on Islam).




Additional Passages

It's also interesting that the Shema refers to God three times regardless of how one translates it1.


  1. Yahweh (is) our God, Yahweh alone.
  2. Yahweh our God (is) one Yahweh.
  3. Yahweh our God, Yahweh (is) one.
  4. Yahweh (is) our God, Yahweh (is) one.
  5. Our one God, (is) Yahweh, Yahweh

Regarding the Shema and Mark 12:29, David H. Stern notes in his Jewish New Testament Commentary:

...Likewise, here in the Sh'ma (Deuteronomy 6:4) there are two such r'mazim: (1) the triple reference to God, and (2) the use of the word "echad," which often means a multiple unity (such as "one" cluster of grapes or "one" bundle of sticks) instead of "yachid," which nearly always excludes multiple oneness. -page 97
Notice that Stern does not make the common Christian mistake in claiming that "echad" [always] means "compound unity." Echad merely means, "one." Whether it is compound or simple oneness. By "triple reference to God" Stern is talking about the fact that God is mentioned three times in the Shema. "Hear, O Israel: The LORD [1st reference] our God [2nd reference], the LORD [3rd reference] is one."


R'mazim is plural for remez.
 (2) Remez ("hint") — wherein a word, phrase or other element in the text hints at a truth not conveyed by the p'shat. The implied presupposition is that God can hint at things of which the Bible writers themselves were unaware. - page 12
(1) P'shat ("simple") — the plain, literal sense of the text, more or less what modern scholars mean by "grammatical-historical exegesis,"...- page 11
See Wikipedia's article on PaRDeS

Notice also that this Jewish concept of God hinting at deeper meanings is consistent with the Christian understanding of Progressive Revelation.

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"I overthrew some of you, as when God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah, and you were as a brand plucked out of the burning; yet you did not return to me,"declares the LORD.- Amos 4:11
This verse might suggest there are two divine persons mentioned. However, it's possible that the Hebrew word "God" is elohim. If so, then a Unitarian might argue that the passage is referring to spiritual beings other than the one true God. Namely, angels whom God commissioned to destroy Sodom and Gomorrah. While that interpretation might be correct, it also might not be correct. For all we know the passage is an allusion to the pre-incarnate Christ.

Compare with:

As when God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah and their neighboring cities, declares the LORD, so no man shall dwell there, and no son of man shall sojourn in her.- Jer. 50:40

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5 "Behold, the days are coming, declares the LORD, when I will raise up for David a righteous Branch, and he shall reign as king and deal wisely, and shall execute justice and righteousness in the land.6 In his days Judah will be saved, and Israel will dwell securely. And this is the name by which he will be called: 'The LORD is our righteousness.'- Jer. 23:5-6
While I've been familiar with this verse, I never really quoted it for the sake of showing two different persons named YHWH. The reason was because in response Unitarians often cite Jer. 33:16 which says that in the future Jerusalem will one day also be called, "the LORD our righteousness." They would point out that just because the city is named "the LORD our righteousness" it obviously doesn't entail that the city is Almighty God. So, even if they grant that Jer. 23:5-6 is a prophecy of Jesus, it doesn't necessarily entail that Jesus is Almighty God. I agree with that point and that's why I've only used the passage in the past to point out that Jesus MIGHT possibly be Jehovah/YHWH based on this verse coupled with 1 Cor. 1:30 and how other Jehovah compound names seemingly have their fulfillment in Jesus. Though, it was common for cities to be name after their rulers. Hence, Jer. 33:16 doesn't undermine Jer. 23:6 as suggesting the divinity of the Messiah. See, the Jewish article and video HERE. See only the video below:




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8 For thus said the LORD of hosts, after his glory sent me to the nations who plundered you, for he who touches you touches the apple of his eye:9 "Behold, I will shake my hand over them, and they shall become plunder for those who served them. Then you will know that the LORD of hosts has sent me.10 Sing and rejoice, O daughter of Zion, for behold, I come and I will dwell in your midst, declares the LORD.11 And many nations shall join themselves to the LORD in that day, and shall be my people. And I will dwell in your midst, and you shall know that the LORD of hosts has sent me to you.- Zech. 2:8-11
Earlier I quoted Zech. 2:8-9 to suggest multiple persons referred to as Jehovah/YHWH. I realize now that verses 10 & 11 also suggest it as well. In verse 11 Jehovah speaks and says Jehovah sent Him.

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I will make them strong in the LORD, and they shall walk in his name,"declares the LORD. - Zech. 10:12
Here again Jehovah speaks and refers to Jehovah in the third person. Thus once again suggesting that two persons are named YHWH/Jehovah.

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"And I will pour out on the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem a spirit of grace and pleas for mercy, so that, when they look on me, on him whom they have pierced, they shall mourn for him, as one mourns for an only child, and weep bitterly over him, as one weeps over a firstborn.- Zech. 12:10
Though I've been familiar with this passage for decades, I normally don't use it as evidence that suggests multiple persons in the Godhead. The reason is because Unitarians rightly point out that when it is quoted in John 19:37 and Rev. 1:7 it has the word "him" rather than "me/Me" as it does in the Masoretic. So, it's not a knockdown argument. But in this blogpost I'm not necessarily looking for knockdown arguments. At a minimum this blogpost's purpose is to supply OT verses that are suggestive of plurality in God. Therefore, it's appropriate for me to do so now. If "Me" is the correct  (as the Masoretic has it), then for those who believe in the inspiration of both Testaments, it suggests that Jesus is YHWH and that there are two persons being referred to as YHWH in this passage. It suggests Jesus is YHWH because Jesus the one who is pierced in the New Testament even though in this passage YHWH is speaking and says He Himself ("Me") is pierced. It also suggests two persons as YHWH because the pierced one is both "Me" (the speaker), and "him" (not the speaker). This is the case even though the New Testament quotes it using the word "him" since an inspired paraphrase of the Old Testament in the New Testament doesn't nullify the inspiration of the original. Having said that, there are other criticisms Unitarians make about this passage (e.g. here). But again, this blogpost is not about knockdown arguments but suggestive ones.

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Another plural name of God is Adonim; "If I am (Adoaim) Lords, where is my fear?" (Mal.. 1:6) now, though this may be said of one in the second and third persons plural, yet never of one in the first person, as it is here said of God by himself; "I am Lords"; and we are sure there are two, "The Lord said to my Lord", &c. (Ps. 110:1). In Daniel 4:17 the most high God is called the watchers and the Holy Ones; "This matter is by the decree of the watchers, and the demand by the word of the Holy Ones"; which respects the revolution and destruction of the Babylonian monarchy; an affair of such moment and importance as not to be ascribed to angels, which some understand by watchers and Holy Ones; but however applicable these epithets may be to them, and they may be allowed to be the executioners of the decrees of God, yet not the makers of them; nor can anything in this world, and much less an affair of such consequence as this, be said to be done in virtue of any decree of theirs: besides, this decree is expressly called, the decree of the most High, (Dan. 4:24) so that the watchers and Holy Ones, are no other than the divine Persons in the Godhead; who are holy in their nature, and watch over the saints to do them good; and over the wicked, to bring evil upon them: and as they are so called in the plural number, to express the plnrality of them in the Deity; so to preserve the unity of the divine essence, this same decree is called, the decree of the most High, (Dan. 4:24) and they the watcher and Holy One, in the singular number in (Dan. 4:13).
-John Gill,  A Body of Doctrinal Divinity  [Book 1, Chapter 27 Of A Plurality In The Godhead]


The following is taken from my blogpost: All Three Persons of the Trinity Mentioned In Scripture (Directly or Indirectly)
I've only included the Old Testament passages below. The New Testament passages are in the original blog.

I've color coded the apparent allusions. Green regarding the Father (because in the Old Testament God likens himself to a green fir tree in Hos. 14:8). Pink regarding the Son (because we have redemption through Christ's blood according to Eph. 1:7). Yellow regarding the Holy Spirit (because the Holy Spirit is the Spirit of Truth who gives light to our eyes [cf. Dan. 5:11, 14; John 14:17; 15:26; 16:13; Rev. 4:5; Isa. 11:2]). Keep in mind that there will be times when I will color a reference to God as green indicating a reference to the Father, even when it might as well be a reference to the Son or Spirit in context. Since, if Trinitarianism is true, then all three persons are God and YHWH. Which means, whenever a text doesn't specify which person of the Trinity is being alluded to, it might refer to all three persons together, or anyone of the three persons, or specifically to one of the three persons but it is just not specified which one.



1    Who is this who comes from Edom,
        in crimsoned garments from Bozrah,
    he who is splendid in his apparel,
        marching in the greatness of his strength?
    "It is I, speaking in righteousness,
        mighty to save."
2    Why is your apparel red,
        and your garments like his who treads in the winepress?
3    "I have trodden the winepress alone,
        and from the peoples no one was with me;
    I trod them in my anger
        and trampled them in my wrath;
    their lifeblood spattered on my garments,
        and stained all my apparel.
4    For the day of vengeance was in my heart,
        and my year of redemption had come.
5    I looked, but there was no one to help;
        I was appalled, but there was no one to uphold;
    so my own arm brought me salvation,
        and my wrath upheld me.
6    I trampled down the peoples in my anger;
        I made them drunk in my wrath,
        and I poured out their lifeblood on the earth."

7    I will recount the steadfast love of the LORD,
        the praises of the LORD,
    according to all that the LORD has granted us,
        and the great goodness to the house of Israel
    that he has granted them according to his compassion,
        according to the abundance of his steadfast love.
8    For he said, "Surely they are my people,
        children who will not deal falsely."
        And he became their Savior.
9    In all their affliction he was afflicted,
        and the angel of his presence saved them;
    in his love and in his pity he redeemed them;
        he lifted them up and carried them all the days of old.
10    But they rebelled
        and grieved his Holy Spirit;
    therefore he turned to be their enemy,
        and himself fought against them.
11    Then he remembered the days of old,
        of Moses and his people.
    Where is he who brought them up out of the sea
        with the shepherds of his flock?
    Where is he who put in the midst of them
        his Holy Spirit,
12    who caused his glorious arm
        to go at the right hand of Moses,
    who divided the waters before them
        to make for himself an everlasting name,
13    who led them through the depths?
    Like a horse in the desert,
        they did not stumble.
14    Like livestock that go down into the valley,
        the Spirit of the LORD gave them rest.
    So you led your people,
        to make for yourself a glorious name.

15    Look down from heaven and see,
        from your holy and beautiful habitation.
    Where are your zeal and your might?
        The stirring of your inner parts and your compassion
        are held back from me.
16    For you are our Father,
        though Abraham does not know us,
        and Israel does not acknowledge us;
    you, O LORD, are our Father,
        our Redeemer from of old is your name.
17    O LORD, why do you make us wander from your ways
        and harden our heart, so that we fear you not?
    Return for the sake of your servants,
        the tribes of your heritage.
18    Your holy people held possession for a little while;
        our adversaries have trampled down your sanctuary.
19    We have become like those over whom you have never ruled,
        like those who are not called by your name.- Isa. 63:1-19
This entire chapter of Isaiah has Trinitarian fingerprints all over it. We have at least three references to each of the three persons of the Trinity. As I said above, some of the passages where "LORD" is used might also be referring to any one or all three persons of the Trinity. That's also true for the word Father in the Old Testament since it might be referring to God generally, and not specifically the first person of the Trinity, God the Father. Remember Jesus is called "everlasting Father (i.e. possessor of the attribute of eternality) in Isa. 9:6. While only the first person of the Trinity is Father within the ontological Trinity, any one of the persons of the economic Trinity can be Father in relation to creation or with respect to redemption. Also, the early references to the LORD as a warrior wearing a splendid garment who treads in the winepress is reminiscent of Rev. 19:11-16 where Jesus is similarly described as a warrior treading a winepress and wearing a robe that is dipped in blood (similar to the imagery of the LORD's robe being stained with red grape juice in Isa. 63:2). The parallels are striking and obviously intentional. Either because Jesus does in the New Testament what the Father did in the Old Testament, or because it was Jesus who did it in the Old Testament as well. Notice that the "arm of the LORD" is mentioned twice. Most everyone who believes in the New Testament agrees that that is a prophetic and veiled reference to Jesus (cf. Isa. 53:1; Luke 1:47,51; Isa. 40:10-11 etc.). The angel of God's presence is mentioned repeatedly elsewhere in the Old Testament and is also universally understood to refer to the pre-incarnate Christ. Finally, the three references to the LORD in verse 7 could just as well have been colored using all three colors.

By the word of the LORD the heavens were made, and by the breath of his mouth all their host.- Ps. 33:6
 Draw near to me, hear this: from the beginning I have not spoken in secret, from the time it came to be I have been there." And now the Lord GOD has sent me, and his Spirit.- Isa. 48:16
While the ESV doesn't capitalize "me," both the NASB and the NKJV do because rather than Isaiah speaking, the translators agree that Jehovah/YHWH is speaking. If that's the correct interpretation, then it is the pre-incarnate Christ, as Jehovah who is speaking about his future ministry.

He sends out his word, and melts them; he makes his wind blow and the waters flow.-Ps. 147:18

O Lord, hear; O Lord, forgive. O Lord, pay attention and act. Delay not, for your own sake, O my God, because your city and your people are called by your name."- Dan. 9:19

For the LORD is our judge; the LORD is our lawgiver; the LORD is our king; he will save us.- Isa. 33:22

And one called to another and said: "Holy, holy, holy is the LORD of hosts; the whole earth is full of his glory!"- Isa. 6:3 [cf. Rev. 4:8]

As I've written elsewhere, it's often pointed out that the use of triples in the above passages doesn't necessarily allude to the Trinity since the same grammatical repetition is used of other things in the Old Testament and in the Hebrew language in general. That's true. But we have to ask ourselves why three rather than two or four or five is the number of times to be used for the full, complete and highest degree of absolute emphasis? Might it be that God Himself implanted, directly or indirectly by His providence, in the historical development of the languages and Semitic cultures of that time a subconscious echoing knowledge and understanding of the Absolute, the ultimate reality? That is, of the reality of  God as a Trinity? Might it be the other way around? That rather than the use of triples in reference to God MERELY being a hinting at and pointing toward the Trinity, might it also ultimately be the case that the Trinity itself is the very source and grounding of that linguistic feature found in various Semitic cultures?

Anthony Rogers points out in one of his articles:

  • The word Elohim is used thousands of times for “God”; Adonai is used hundreds of times for “Lord”; both of these words are plural nouns in Hebrew.
  • A number of passages speak of the “faces” or “presences” or “persons” of God (Exodus 33:14; Deuteronomy 4:37; and Job 13:8).
  • God refers to Himself as “Us,” “Our,” and “We” (Genesis 1:26, 2:18 (LXX), 3:22, 11:7; Isaiah 6:8, and 41:21-24),2 a phenomenon that is reflected in virtually every English translation.
  • The OT says of God, “they caused me to wander” (Genesis 20:13), “they appeared” (Genesis 35:7), “they drew nigh” (Deuteronomy 4:7), “they went” (2 Samuel 7:23), and “they judge” (Psalm 58:11).
  • The OT calls God our “Creators” (Ecclesiastes 12:1), “Makers” and “Husbands” (Job 35:10; Psalm 149:2; Isaiah 54:5).
  • The OT says that God is “holy” (Joshua 24:19; Proverbs 9:10, 30:33), another plural.



See Also these other blogs of mine:

The Aaronic Blessing Is Highly Suggestive of the Doctrine of the Trinity

All Three Persons of the Trinity Mentioned In Scripture (Directly or Indirectly)

Quotes from "Of A Plurality In The Godhead" by John Gill

Proving That There Is A Plurality In The Godhead


See Also these books by John Gill:

The Doctrine of the Trinity Stated and  Vindicated (or HERE) [FULL BOOK]

A Body of Doctrinal Divinity [FULL BOOK]

Regarding Jewish Professor Dr. Sommer's Comments About the Trinity

The Great Mystery; or, How Can Three Be One? [The Trinity in Early Judaism]

The Jewish Trinity: How the Old Testament Reveals the Christian Godhead by Dr. Michael Heiser





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